Tatbir Fatawa

The following are the Fatawa of 19 of the most Eminent Maraje’ of the Shi'a world

regarding the TA’ZIA or AZADARI for Imam Hussain peace be upon him

[the list below is not exhaustive, but it only enlists some of the eminent Maraje'.]  

 

Al-Imam al-Sheikh Abdul Kareem al-Ha’ery

The Founder of the current Hawzah in the holy city of Qum. 

“The hitting of swords on the heads (causing bleeding) is alright (allowed) provided there is no harm to the person doing this.  Furthermore no one has the right to prohibit this (hitting the head with sword).  In fact all kinds of TA’ZIAH – mourning – for SEYYED AL-SHUHADA’ – Imam Hussain – may our souls be sacrificed for him, are MUSTAHAB – desirable deeds.”

 

 

The above Fatwa by al-Imam al-Sheikh Abdul Kareem al-Ha’ery was endorsed and signed by the following eminent Maraje’:

 

  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Sheikh Muhammad al-Araki,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Muhammad Ridha al-Gulpaygani,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Shahab-el-Deen al-Mar’ashi al-Najafi,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Hassan al-Tabataba’e al-Qummi,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Muhammad al-Waheedi,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Mirza Jawaad al-Tabrizi,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Muhammad Saadiq al-Rouhani,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma Muhammad Mahdi al-Lankaroudi,

And many other Maraje’ and eminent scholars . . .

 

 

 

Al-Imam al-Sheikh Muhammad Hussain al-Naa’ini,

The teacher of the Maraje’ of the holy city of Najaf.

 

“There is no doubt as to the permissibility of the beating of the chest and the face with the hands to the point of redness or blackness (of the chest or the face).  This is also extended to the lashing of the shoulders and the back with chains to the extent mentioned (above), and even if this led to bleeding.  As for causing the bleeding of the head by sword beating, this is also allowed provided it does not lead to endangering harm, such as unstoppable bleeding or harm to the scull, etc. as it is known amongst the experts in doing this (hitting on the head).”

 

 

The above Fatwa by al-Imam al-Sheikh Muhammad Hussain al-Naa’ini was endorsed and signed by the following eminent Maraje’:

 

  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Mohsen al-Hakim,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Muhammad Kaadhem al-Shari’atMadari,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Abd-el-A’la al-Sabzewary,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Abul-Qassim al-Kho’i,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Muhammad Ridha al-Gulpaygani,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Ali al-Hussaini al-Seestani,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid Muhammad Saadiq al-Rouhani,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Mirza Jawaad al-Tabrizi,
  • Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Sheikh Hussain al-Waheed al-Khurasani,

And many other Maraje’ and eminent scholars . . .

 

 

Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid al-Kho’i

The former leader of the Hawzah of the holy city of Najaf.

  Question: Is there any problem with causing the bleeding of the head – TATBIR – as it is practiced, to express one’s grief about the martyrdom of our Imam Hussain peace be upon him, assuming there is going to be no permanent harm?

  Answer:

There is no problem with that, given the assumption made in the question, and Allah knows best.

Question:

You stated that there is no problem in causing the bleeding of the head – known as TATBIR – if it does not lead to harm.  It is said that it is not more than a permissible act, then can TATBIR be MUSTAHAB – desirable – if the intention was the upholding and honouring the Sha’a’er – signs of Allah – and sympathy with the Ahl-ul-Bayt, peace be upon them?

 

Answer:

Most probably Allah Almighty would give thawab – reward (the individual) – for sympathising with the Ahl-ul-Bayt if the intention is sincere.

 

 

 

 

Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Seyyid al-Seestani

The current leader of the Hawzah of the holy city of Najaf.

 

Question:

What is the ruling regarding the lashing with chains, chest beating, and walking on fire on the occasion of mourning the martyrdom of Imam Hussain peace be upon him?

Answer:

If (these are) not associated with extreme harm or loss of limb, there is no objection.

 

Question:

What is the ruling regarding wearing black, and chest beating when commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Hussain peace be upon him, as well as other infallible Imams peace be upon them?

 

Answer:

This is permissible, and in fact this is regarded as one of the best means of seeking nearness to Allah, since it is upholding and honouring the Sha’a’er of Allah Almighty. [This is a reference to the Qur’anic Ayah 22:32. – translator.]

 

 

 

 

Ayatollah al-Udhma al-Imam al-Seyyid al-Shirazi

 

Question:

Some individuals say that I do not see shedding my tears as enough to express my grief for Imam Hussain (AS), his household and his followers on the day of Ashura.  So is hitting myself with sword and injuring myself is allowed?

 

Answer:

The Hussaini Sha’a’er, including TATBIR, are some of the RAAJIH issues.   TATBIR is a MUSTAHAB deed, unless it leads to death, loss of limb, or loss of faculties. (RAAJIH means MUSTAHAB that could become WAJIB depending on the circumstances - translator.).

 

Question:

What is your opinion regarding hitting the head with sword – TATBIR – on the day of Ashura whether or not it harms the individual?

 

Answer:

The most common and widely known opinion of the Fuqaha (scholars) is that the desirability (of TATBIR) is in it not being extremely harmful.

 

Question:

If one engages in the program of TA’ZIAH for Imam Hussain (AS), and goes on to serve the program of TA’ZIAH but does not do TATBIR, is he regarded as a sinner, who deserves to be humiliated?

 

Answer:

TATBIR is a desirable act, and a MUKALLAF – i.e. one who has reached the adolescence age and is duty bound – may forsake a desirable act.  It is not allowed to humiliate a Mu’min, and also one who does not do TATBIR may not humiliate or insult others, or accuse them (of false things).

 

Question:

What is your opinion regarding the reports that Lady Zaynab (AS), when she saw the head of her brother Imam Hussain peace be upon him, being paraded in public hit her forehead on the bar of the carriage she was travelling in, causing bleeding to flow from beneath her veil, which was visible to onlookers who witnessed the event?

 

Answer:

Yes that is proven.

 

{Some of the famous references, which confirm the above report, are as follows:

·        Bihaar al-Anwaar; volume 45, page 114,

·        Jalaa’ al-‘Oyun; volume 2, page 238,

·        Zaynab al-Kubra; page 112,

·        Asraar al-Shahadah; page 474,

·        Al-Muntakhab; volume 2, page 478,

·        Nusrat-ul-Madhlum; page 18.

Needless to say that ‘Allamah al-Majlisi – compiler of Bihaar al-Anwaar – and Sheikh al-Shari’ah al-Isfahani have confirmed the authenticity of the report.}

 

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