History of early rulers in the Islamic era . . .
Marriage of daughter of Imam Ali (AS) to Umar?
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Question: On the Bay'ah of the first Caliph . . .
- Why the Shi'a do not accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr whereas it is claimed that their first Imam, Imam Ali (AS) accepted Abu Bakr's caliphate? This is when it is the Shi'a belief to accept whatever their imams accept and reject whatever their imams reject.
- Also why Imam Hassan (AS) accepted the caliphate of Mu'awiah?
- And why imam Hussain (AS) did not accept the caliphate of (son of Mu'awiah) yazeed but his father and brother accepted the caliphate of Abu Bakr and Mu'awiah respectively?
A. Imam Ali (AS) did not accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr to begin with, and when he did he was forced to do so. The door of Imam Ali's house was set on fire, his house was broken into, his wife Fatimah al-Zahra (AS) was crushed between the door of the house and wall, causing her sever to sustain injuries; her ribs were broken, her lung was pierced with a long spike, the baby she was carrying in her womb, Muhsen, was also murdered in the process of her being crushed. As if all these abhorrent crimes were not enough, she was then slapped on her face so hard that she was thrown to the ground and they hit her by the side of the sword on her arm. Having done all this, they then dragged Imam Ali (AS) out of the house, putting a noose around his neck, dragging him through the streets of Madinah to force him to make Bay'ah to Abu Bakr!!! When they reached Abu Bakr, they grabbed hold of the hand of Imam Ali (AS) and forcefully touched it to the hand of Abu Bakr, and then shouted that Imam Ali (AS) has made Bay'ah with Abu Bakr!!! People like Salman al-Farsi and Abu Dharr al-Ghefari shouted by Allah Imam Ali did NOT make Bay'ah willingly. Imam Ali (AS) told everyone that the Caliphate is his right only, as Rasulollah (S) had appointed Imam Ali (AS) as his successor on specific instructions from Allah Almighty. He repeated this throughout the rule of the three rulers Abu Bakr, Omar, and Othman, and the Muslims freely, and for the first time, made Bay'ah with Imam Ali (AS) as the Caliph of Rasulollah (S), even then he stated that it was his right to be the caliph of Rasulollah, and it was every Muslim's duty the make Bay'ah with him, Imam Ali as Amir-ul-Mu'minin, if they believed in Allah and His Messenger.
After the martyrdom of Rasulollah, the Muslims did not honour the Bay'ah they had given Imam Ali (AS) on the day of Ghadeer Khum on the orders of Rasulollah (S). The correct thing to do was to adhere to the Bay'ah the Muslims had given Imam Ali (AS), and Imam Ali (AS) challenged everyone to prove otherwise, and stated that the truth - the Haqq - was to do what Allah and His Messenger had ordered the Muslims to do; to accept and obey Imam Ali as the Caliph of Rasulollah and Amir-ul-Mu'minin of all the Muslims. If some decide to go against the orders of Allah and His Messenger, that does not make it right for others to follow suit. What should be followed as the Haqq has been clarified and identified by Allah, and His Messenger as well as Amir-ul-Mu'minin himself. And it is the Haqq that the Shi'a follow. The Shi'a follow whatever Allah, His Messenger and the infallible Imams tell them, and Allah, His Messenger and the infallible Imams did not tell them to follow anyone else other than the Imams.
So in short Imam Ali (AS) did not accept the caliphate of anyone out of choice, and did not tell his followers to do so either. In fact if anything, all the Imams emphasised solely on the imamat of the Imams of the Ahl-ul-Bayt, and they, as well as Rasulollah (S) said that salvation of the Muslims is ONLY achieved through following the Imams and NO-ONE else.
B. As for Imam Hassan (AS), again Imam Hassan (AS) was effectively 'forced' to concede to the self-imposed ruler of Shaam, Mu'awia, since most of those who started off with Imam Hassan (AS) were bribed and bought off by Mu'awia. Imam Hassan (AS) therefore did not have the personnel and the resources to challenge Mu'awia. Imam Hassan (AS) therefore conceded to Mu'awia, as a ruler and NOT as the Caliph of Rasulollah, on the conditions that:
- Imam Hassan (AS) assumes office of caliphate after the death of Mu'awia.
- In the case of the death of Imam Hassan (AS) before the death of Mu'awia, his brother Imam Hussain (AS) assumes the office of the Caliphate after Mu'awia.
- Mu'awia must not appoint his son yazid as his successor.
- Mu'awia must not harass or persecute the Shi'a of Ahl-ul-Bayt / followers of Imam Ali (AS).
- The safety and security of the Shi'a must be guaranteed and their wealth and possessions safeguarded.
Mu'awia accepted all the terms and conditions of the agreement, known as the peace treaty between Imam Hassan (AS) and Mu'awia . . . but after the death of Imam Hassan (AS) - who was poisoned by his wife on the instructions and enticement of Mu'awia - Mu'awia went back on all of the terms and conditions of the peace treaty with Imam Hassan (AS). And just before Mu'awia died, he appointed his son yazid as his successor.
C. When Mu'awia died and yazid took over the reigns of power, Imam Hussain (AS), as the Imam and Leader of Ummah rose against yazid. Apart from yazid's despicable behaviour, his taking over of power was in breach of the agreement which was signed between Imam Hassan (SA) and Mu'awia that was binding to all concerned, and even if Imam Hassan (AS) were alive, he would have risen against yazid in the same way Imam Hussain (AS) did.
P.S. One good book covering the issue of such topic is called "Peshawar Nights" which is available in Farsi, Arabic and English and may be available in Urdu.
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Question: Did the daughter of Imam Ali (AS) marry Umar?
Is there a hadith about the daughter of Imam Ali (As) who was asked in marriage by the second caliph Umar? Did a marriage take place at all?
Bismillah al-Rahmaan al-Raheem
The short answer to this question is yes there are hadiths that attempt to suggest that Umar bin al-Khattaab asked for the daughter of Imam Ali (AS). The hadiths that are reported in such sunny hadith books as the book of al-Estee'aab by Ibn Abd-el-Birr, the book of Taareekh Baghdaad by al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi, and the book of al-Esaabah by Ibn Hajar are quite clearly false and un-authentic; not only on the basis of the narrators of the hadiths, but also on the basis of the content of the hadiths.
In one hadith "Umar asks Imam Ali (AS) for his daughter in marriage, and Imam Ali (AS) asks him to leave and then Imam Ali asks his daughter to go to Umar, and when she arrives Umar asks her to marry him, and places his hand on her leg and uncovers her leg!!!!!! She immediately says to him you do this to me! If you were not the ruler I would have broken your nose. And she leaves the room. She tells Imam Ali of what happened and added 'You sent me to a vile old man.' But Ali nevertheless marries her to him!" al-Estee'aab 4/1954.
In another hadith "Umar asks Imam Ali (AS) for his daughter in marriage, and Imam Ali (AS) asks him to leave and then Imam Ali asks his daughter to make herself beautiful to go to Umar!!! And when Umar saw her he placed his hand on her leg and asked her to marry him . . . when she came back to her father Imam Ali asked her what did Umar tell you, she replied Umar kissed me and placed his hand on my leg and asked me to marry him. Then Ali married her to him!!!!!" Taareekh Baghdaad 6/182.
Ibn Hajar reports in his book al-Esaabah that "Umar asks Imam Ali (AS) for his daughter Umm Kolthum (AS) in marriage, and Imam Ali (AS) asks him to leave and then Imam Ali asks his daughter to go to Umar, and when she arrives Umar placed his hand on her leg and uncovers her leg!!!!!! The daughter of Imam Ali (AS) says to him if you were not the ruler I would have gouged your eyes . . . ." al-Esaabah 4/321.
The behaviour of Umar according to such hadiths has been so fouls and abhorrent that many sunny scholars have been put to shame. Because such behaviour is not only disgraceful, but it is also totally haram according to Islam. One of the top sunny scholars, Ibn Jawzey, states in his book "Tathkirat Khawas al-Ummah" p 321: "And by Allah this is vile and despicable, even if she was a slave Umar may not have done this to her, and furthermore in accordance with the unanimous consensus of the scholars of the Muslims, the touching of a non-Mahram is not allowed, then how this hadith can be attributed to Umar?"
As you can see these hadiths are totally false and any respectable and honourable Muslim would not send his daughter to the house of another man or agree to such abhorrent behaviour let alone agreeing to marrying his daughter. These hadiths have been placed by the enemies of Imam Ali (AS) and the enemies of the Ahl-ul-Bayt (AS) in order to demean Imam Ali and his household (AS) and give some status to Umar. Such a marriage certainly did not take place at all.
Imam Ali the son of Abi_Talib peace be upon them, had two daughters from Lady Fatimah al-Zahra' peace be upon her, the beloved daughter of the holy Prophet Muhammad may Allah bless him and his pure family. They were Zaynab and Umm_Kolthoum peace be upon them.
Lady Zaynab married her cousin Abdullah the son of Ja'far ibn Abi_Talib - also known as Ja'far al-Tayyar. Ja'far al-Tayyar, who on the orders of the prophet headed the Muslims who migrated to
, is the brother of Imam Ali peace be upon them.
Lady Umm_Kolthoum married her cousin Muhammad/Sa'id the son of Aqeel ibn Abi_Talib. Aqeel ibn Abi Talib is the elder brother of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib.
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